Intangible Cultural Heritage

Intangible Cultural Heritage The Kihnu Cultural Space

Questions & Answers

cases they might even assist andpromote creativity. However, peoplestill play the key role in the creation andcarrying forward of intangible culturalheritage.Communities, collectively, are the oneswho create, carry and transmitintangible cultural heritage. Acommunity might share an expressionof such heritage that is similar to onepractised by others. Whether they arefrom the neighbouring village, from acity on the opposite side of the world,or have been adapted by peoples whohave migrated and settled in a differentregion, all are intangible culturalheritage as they have been passed fromone generation to another, haveevolved in response to their environ -ments and contribute to giving eachcommunity its sense of identity andcontinuity. Sharing similar heritagepromotes respect and understandingof the other and reinforces socialintangible culturalQuestions and answers about…2 . INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE What is intangible cultural heritage? Cultural heritage does not end atmonuments and collections of objects at prix billets Musee d’Orsay.It also includes traditions or livingexpressions inherited from ourancestors and passed on to ourdescendants, such as oral traditions,performing arts, social practices, rituals,festive events, knowledge and practicesconcerning nature and the universe orthe knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts. While these may notbe tangible – they cannot be touched –they are a very important part of ourcultural heritage. This is intangiblecultural heritage, a living form ofheritage which is continuouslyrecreated and which evolves as weadapt our practices and traditions inresponse to our environment. Itprovides a sense of identity andbelonging in relation to our owncultures. As the world changes,modernisation and mechanisation arepart of this living process – in manyPhoto © UNESCO / Yves Parfait KoffiPhoto © Luiz Santoz / UNESCOPhoto © Fernando Brugman / UNESCOL The Samba de Roda ofRecôncavo of Bahiajj The Uyghur Muqam ofXinjian, ChinaL The Mask Dance of theDrums from Drametse,BhutanPhoto © Yoshi Shimizu/
cohesion. Learning about differentforms of intangible cultural heritagealso promotes respect for others andintercultural dialogue.‘Protecting’ or ‘safeguarding’?To be kept alive, intangible culturalheritage must be relevant to thecommunity, continuously recreatedand transmitted from one generationto another. There is a risk that certainelements of intangible cultural heritagecould die out or disappear withouthelp, but safeguarding does not meanprotection or conservation in the usualsense, as this may cause intangiblecultural heritage to become fixed orfrozen. ‘Safeguarding’ means ensuring theviability of the intangible cultural heritage,that is ensuring its continuous recreationand transmission. Safe guardingintangible cultural heritage is about thetransferring of knowledge, skills andmeaning. It focuses on the processesinvolved in transmitting, or communi -cating it from generation to generation,rather than on the production of itsconcrete manifestations, such as danceperformances, songs, music instrumentsor crafts.The communities which bear andpractise intangible cultural heritage arethe people best placed to identify andsafeguard it. However, outsiders can helpwith safeguarding. For instance, they cansupport communities in collecting andrecording information on elements oftheir intangible cultural heritage, ortransmit knowledge about theintangible cultural heritage throughmore formal channels such as educationin schools, colleges and universities.Promoting information about intangiblecultural heritage through media is also away to support its safeguarding.Intangible cultural heritage shouldnevertheless not always besafeguarded, nor be revitalized at anycost. As any living body, it follows a lifecycle and therefore some elements areto disappear, after having given birth tonew forms of expressions. It might beso that certain forms of intangiblecultural heritage are no longerconsidered relevant or meaningful forthe community itself. As indicated inthe Convention for the Safeguarding ofthe Intangible Cultural Heritage, onlyintangible cultural heritage that isrecognized by the communities astheirs and that provides them with asense of identity and continuity, is to besafeguarded. Any safeguardingmeasure must be developed, andapplied, with the consent andinvolvement of the community itself. Incertain cases, public intervention tosafeguard a community’s heritage isnot even desirable, since it may distortthe value such heritage has for thecommunity itself. Moreover,safeguarding measures must alwaysrespect the customary practicesheritageL The Song of Sana’a, YemenL The Gule Wamkulu, Malawi, Mozambique,ZambiaL The Oral Heritage of Gelede, Benin, Nigeria,TogoQUESTIONS AND ANSWERS . 3Photo © UNESCO / Yves Parfait KoffiPhoto © Malawi National Commission for UNESCOPhoto © Fu’ad al Gu’turi
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community does not take place thisyear? How much would be necessary toteach the community the knowledgeand skills that allowed them to jointlyorganize the festival and perform in it?How much is lost if a traditional wateror land management system foragriculture is distorted by short-termbenefits-oriented market systems?The cost of depriving communities oftheir intangible cultural heritage is theeconomic damage produced when thedirect or indirect economic valuesdisappear, or the community’s socialcohesion and mutual understanding isunder threat. The erosion orinterruption of the transmission of theintangible cultural heritage mightdeprive the community of its socialmarkers, lead to marginalization andmisunderstanding, and cause identityfallback and conflict.Why UNESCO?The United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organisation(UNESCO) is the United Nations’specialized agency working within thefields of education, social and naturalsciences, culture and communicationto promote international cooperationgoverning the access to specificaspects of such heritage, which might,for instance, be the case when dealingwith sacred or secret intangible culturalheritage manifestations.Why should we safeguard it?Intangible cultural heritage is importantas it gives us a sense of identity andbelonging, linking our past, through thepresent, with our future. Anunderstanding of the intangiblecultural heritage of differentcommunities also helps withintercultural dialogue, and encouragesmutual respect for other ways of life.Intangible cultural heritage is of bothsocial and economic importance. It aidssocial cohesion and helps individuals tofeel part of a community and of societyat large.The value of intangible cultural heritageis defined by the communitiesthemselves – they are the ones whorecognise these manifestations as partof their heritage and who find itvaluable. The social value of intangiblecultural heritage may, or may not, betranslated into a commercial value. Theeconomic value of the intangiblecultural heritage for a specificcommunity is twofold: the knowledgeand skills that are transmitted withinthat community, as well as the productresulting from those knowledge andskills. Examples of its direct economicvalue may be the consumption by thecommunity of traditionalpharmacopeia, instead of patentedmedicines, the commercial use of itsproducts, such as selling the tickets fora performance, trading in crafts orattracting tourists.However intangible cultural heritagedoes not only have a direct economicvalue resulting from the consumptionof its products by the community itselfor by others through trade. By playing amajor role in giving the community itssense of identity and continuity, itsupports social cohesion, withoutwhich development is impossible.This indirect value of intangible culturalheritage results from the knowledgetransmitted, often through informalchannels, the impact it has in othereconomic sectors and from its capacityto prevent and resolve conflict, which isa principal burden for development.How much is lost if an annual festivalthat attracts people from outside the4 . INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGEJ The Royal Ballet ofCambodiaI The Al-Sirah al-Hilaliyyah,EgyptII The Wayang PuppetTheatre, IndonesiaIII The AzerbaijaniMughamPhoto © CULTNATPhoto © Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts
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in these fields in order to ensure a morepeaceful world. To achieve this,UNESCO performs several differentroles. It acts as a laboratory of ideas anda standard-setter to forge universalagreements on emerging ethical issues.It also serves as a clearinghouse tospread and share knowledge whilehelping its 193 Member States and 6Associate Members to build theirhuman and institutional capacities.UNESCO, as the only specialized agencywithin United Nations with a specificmandate in culture, is working to createthe conditions for dialogue based uponrespect for shared values andencourages international cooperation.The Organization has been working forover 60 years in the field of intangiblecultural heritage, which culminatedwith the adoption in 2003 of theConvention for the Safeguarding of theIntangible Cultural Heritage.Why a Convention?The adoption of the Convention for theSafeguarding of the Intangible CulturalHeritage by the General Conference ofUNESCO in 2003 is the result of longstanding efforts by UNESCO’s MemberStates to provide a legal, administrativeand financial framework to safeguard thisheritage. As a treaty, the Convention is aninternational agreement concludedbetween states in written form andgoverned by international law. Statesthat ratify the Convention express theirconsent in being bound by its provisions.By doing so, they become States Partiesto the Convention and enjoy all therights and assume all the obligationsincluded within the Convention.The main purposes of the 2003Convention are to safeguard intangiblecultural heritage, to ensure respect forit, to raise awareness about itsimportance and to provide forinternational cooperation andassistance in these fields. TheConvention focuses on the role ofcommunities and groups insafeguarding intangible culturalheritage and is concerned withprocesses and conditions rather thanproducts, placing emphasis on livingheritage that is performed by people,often collectively, and mostlycommunicated through livingexperience. It deals with heritage thatcommunities deem important, andstrives to contribute to the promotionof creativity and diversity, to the well-being of communities, groups, andsociety at large, enabling a peacefuldevelopment and living together.How does the Convention work?The Convention proposes a set ofmeasures to be implemented at thenational and international level.At a national level, the Convention callsfor the safeguarding of the intangiblecultural heritage present on a State’sterritory. It requests each State to identifyand define such heritage with theparticipation of communities, groupsand relevant NGOs. States shall draw up,and regularly update, inventories of theintangible cultural heritage. TheConvention also proposes severalsafeguarding measures as well asmeasures aimed at raising awareness,building up capacities and promotingeducational measures in the field ofintangible cultural heritage.At an international level, all States thathave ratified the Convention meet inthe General Assembly of the StatesParties to the Convention every twoyears. The General Assembly givesstrategic orientations for theimplementation of the Convention andelects the 24 members of theQUESTIONS AND ANSWERS . 5Photo © © Yoshi Shimizu, www.yoshi-shimizu.comPhoto © UNESCO
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line with international agreements onhuman rights and that meetsrequirements of mutual respect amongcommunities and of sustainabledevelopment. Although onlygovernments from States Parties to theConvention can nominate intangiblecultural heritage elements for theCommittee to consider, the proposalmust be made with the fullparticipation and consent of thecommunity or group concerned.If selected by the IntergovernmentalCommittee, the intangible culturalheritage element will be inscribed onthe List of the Intangible CulturalHeritage in Need of UrgentSafeguarding, or on the RepresentativeList of the Intangible Cultural Heritageof Humanity. The Committee alsopublishes and updates a register ofprogrammes, projects and activitiesthat it has selected as best reflectingthe objectives and principles of theConvention. These programmes,projects or activities may serve assafeguarding examples and bedisseminated as good practices.The Urgent Safeguarding List is themost important since it aims at takingappropriate safeguarding measures forthose intangible cultural heritageexpressions or manifestations whoseviability – that is whose continuousrecreation and transmission – isthreatened.Inscription on the Representative Listaims at contributing to ensuringvisibility and awareness of thesignificance of the intangible culturalheritage and to encouraging dialogue,thus reflecting cultural diversityworldwide and testifying to humancreativity.The increased visibility created by beinginscribed on these lists may also helpwith recognizing and appreciatingminority groups, and even boost theself-esteem and standing ofcommunities and groups that bear andpractise the intangible cultural heritageelement inscribed. However, care mustbe taken to make sure this increasedattention does not have a harmfuleffect on the intangible culturalheritage. For instance, increasedtourism could have a distorting effect,as communities may change heritageto suit tourists’ demands, or createdifferences among groups orIntergovernmental Committee for theSafeguarding of the Intangible CulturalHeritage, which meets every year topromote the aims of the Conventionand monitor its implementation.One of the functions of the Committeeis to prepare and submit to the GeneralAssembly for approval OperationalDirectives to guide the effectiveimplementation of the provisions of theConvention. The General Assemblyadopted the first Operational Directivesin June 2008, and will continue tocomplete and revise them in futuremeetings. Among other things, theOperational Directives indicate theprocedures to be followed forinscribing intangible cultural heritageon the lists of the Convention, theprovision of international financialassistance, the accreditation of non-governmental organizations to act inan advisory capacity to the Committeeor the involvement of communities inimplementing the Convention.How can intangible cultural heritagebe internationally recognized underthe Convention?The Convention aims at safeguardingintangible cultural heritage that is in6 . INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGEPhoto © M. RevelardPhoto © Angéline Yegnan / UNESCOPhoto © Achille LePera /UNESCO
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are considered domains of theintangible cultural heritage by itsArticle 2. The Convention does notinclude language in itself or as a whole(grammar, vocabulary, syntax), butunderscores that it is a fundamentalvehicle for transmitting intangiblecultural heritage. Oral traditions andexpressions cannot exist withoutlanguage. Moreover, almost all typesof intangible cultural heritage – fromknowledge about the universe to ritualsand handicrafts – are linked or dependon language for their day-to-daypractice and passing down fromgeneration to generation.What can States do for safeguardingintangible cultural heritage?As those who create intangible culturalheritage and keep it alive, communitieshave a privileged place in safeguardingit. Sometimes they may not have thepower, or the means, to do this on theirown. In this case the State, or agencies,institutions and organizations, mightwork with them to help safeguard theirliving heritage.Through the Convention, States are beingencouraged to assist safeguarding bydrawing up and updating inventories,which should include all elements ofintangible cultural heritage within theirterritory. In doing so, they assess theintangible cultural heritage present intheir territories, including the heritage indanger of disappearing, raise awarenessabout it, creating and renewing interest init and, importantly, bringing new light towhat should be an active, ever-changingform of living heritage. States are free tocreate their inventories in their ownfashion. However, communities shouldbe actively involved in the inventoryingprocesses, and the intangible culturalheritage elements should be well definedin the inventories to help put intopractice safeguarding measures.States may also adopt legal, technical,administrative and financial measuresaimed at ensuring access to theintangible cultural heritage whilerespecting customary practicesgoverning access to specific aspects ofsuch heritage, as well as measures aimedat creating or strengtheningdocumentation institutions. Can docu -mentation lead to freezing intangiblecultural heritage? No, if it aims atshowing the state of this heritage at themoment documentation is undertaken.If an element of intangible culturalQUESTIONS AND ANSWERS . 7I The Duduk and its Music,ArmeniaJ The Carnival of Oruro,BoliviaJJ The Gbofe ofAfounkaha – the Music ofthe Transverse Trumps ofthe Tagbana Community,Côte d’lvoireJJJ The Carnival ofBinche, BelguimJJJJ Opera dei Pupi,Sicilian Pastoral Songs,ItalyPhoto © UNESCO / Anahit MinasyanPhoto © Anders Rymancommunities by recognizing one livingexpression and not another. There isalso a danger of freezing heritagethrough a ‘folklorisation’ process or thequest for ‘authenticity’, or of thedisregard of customs that governaccess to secret or sacred information.Indeed, this could lead to a ‘marketvalue’ being placed on the intangiblecultural heritage instead of its culturalvalue, leaving it open to inappropriatecommercial exploitation.An element of the intangible culturalheritage cannot be inscribed on theRepresentative List and the UrgentSafeguarding List at the same time,since their purpose is different andother inscription criteria, as well asnomination procedures, apply for eachof them.Can religions or languages berecognized under the Convention?Though religions provide communitieswith a sense of identity and continuity,they are not included as such inthe Convention. However, theConvention refers to culturalpractices and expressions inspiredby religions. For instance, socialpractices, rituals and festive events
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heritage is threatened and becomesendangered, the record will have toreflect the risks it encounters. Keepingtrack of living heritage is therefore vital,as possible threats can be quicklydetected, and corrective measures putin place.Moreover, States should ensurerecognition of and respect for theintangible cultural heritage in society,in particular through developingeducational, awareness-raising andinformation programmes, capacitybuilding activities for the safeguardingof the intangible cultural heritage andsupporting non-formal means oftransmitting knowledge.Can I receive funding for safeguardingmy intangible cultural heritage?Assistance requests can only besubmitted by governments. A fund tofinance programmes, projects andother activities was established underthe 2003 Convention. In distributingfunds, special attention is given to theneeds of developing countries,particularly less developed countries.The safeguarding of heritage includedon the List of Intangible CulturalHeritage in Need of Urgent Safe -guarding and the creation of inventoriesare given special priority in theallocation of funds. The Fund is also usedfor providing emergency assistance, orfor the participation in the sessions ofthe Committee of the members ofcommunities and groups and ofexperts in intangible cultural heritage.All forms and procedures for requestinginternational assistance are available Secretariat at Headquartersand in the field, National Commissionsfor UNESCO and local authorities mayprovide further help in preparing theassistance requests.Are intellectual property rights dealtwith by the Convention?The Convention focuses onsafeguarding the intangible culturalheritage – that is on ensuring itscontinuous recreation and transmissionby identifying and defining the heritageitself – rather than on legally protectingspecific manifestations throughintellectual property rights, which atthe international level falls mainlywithin the field of competence of theWorld Intellectual PropertyOrganization. The Conventionnevertheless states, in its Article 3,that its provisions may not beinterpreted as affecting the rights andobligations of States Parties derivingfrom any international instrumentrelated to intellectual property rights.Applying intellectual property rightswith the current legislative frameworkis not satisfactory when dealing withintangible cultural heritage. Maindifficulties are related to its evolving andshared nature as well as to the fact that itis often owned collectively. Indeed, asintangible cultural heritage evolvesthanks to its continuous recreation bythe communities and groups that bearand practise it, protecting a specificmanifestation like the performance ofa dance, the recorded interpretationof a song or the patented use of amedicinal plant may lead to freezing thisintangible cultural heritage and hinderits natural evolution. Moreover, as thecommunities are the ones who create,maintain and transmit intangible culturalheritage, it is difficult to determine thecollective owner of such heritage.Intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation togeneration, is constantly recreated by communities and groups,and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thuspromoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity.IntangibleCulturalHeritageJ Language, Dance andMusic of the Garifuna,Belize, Guatemala,Honduras and NicaraguaPhoto © National Garifuna CouncilKThe Kihnu Cultural SpacePhoto © MarcSosaarWith the support of the Governmentof Norway

The First International Photography competition of Tehran

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Page 1 of 5The First International Photography competition of Tehran ICH Centre Intangible Cultural Heritage in the ContextIntroductionRegional Research Centre for Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage in West andCentral Asia, Under the Auspices of UNESCO (Tehran ICH Centre) tries to achieve thefollowing goals and fulfilling assigned duties in the region:- to promote the 2003 Convention (for the Safeguarding of the Intangible CulturalHeritage) and its implementation in West and Central Asia,- to promote public awareness and expert capacities in the field of Intangible CulturalHeritage,- to strengthen capacities and cooperation in the region for identifying, inventorying,documenting and studying Intangible Cultural Heritage in order to contribute to itssafeguarding,- to promote peace and friendship, synergy, and sustainable development over theregion,Geographical area assigned to Tehran ICH Centre includes 24 countries which arealphabetically listed as follow: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Georgia, Iran,Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, the Kyrgyz Republic, Lebanon, Oman, Pakistan,Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, the United ArabicEmirates, Uzbekistan, Yemen.Tehran ICH Centre, following the above mentioned objectives, by organizing its FirstInternational Photography Competition titled Intangible Cultural Heritage in the Context,tries to attract different groups of different communities, specially youth, to the concept of
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Page 2 of 5Intangible Cultural Heritage and its manifestations. We hereby invite every enthusiasts forphotography, including professionals and amateurs, considering of the Centre’s goals andthe regulations listed below, to participate in the Competition and help us to accomplish ourgoals and duties.What is Intangible Cultural Heritage?The “Intangible Cultural Heritage” (ICH) means the practices, representations,expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and culturalspaces associated therewith that communities, groups and, in some cases, individualsrecognize as part of their cultural heritage. This Intangible Cultural Heritage, transmittedfrom generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups inresponse to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and providesthem with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity andhuman creativity.For the purposes of the 2003 Convention, consideration will be given solely to suchIntangible Cultural Heritage as is compatible with:• existing international human rights instruments,• the requirements of mutual respect among communities, groups and individuals,• And sustainable development.ManifestationsThe “Intangible Cultural Heritage”, as defined above, is manifested inter alia in thefollowing domains:- Oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangiblecultural heritage (e.g. songs, lullabies, story-telling, communal labor songs, …);
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Page 3 of 5- Performing arts (e.g. music, dance, traditional theatre, puppet plays, painting,calligraphy, …);- Social practices, rituals and festive events (e.g. festivals, processions, games,mourning ceremonies, weddings, …);- Knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe (e.g. traditionalmedicine, traditional architecture, traditional navigation systems, traditional methods ofutilizing clean energy, traditional management systems, …);- Traditional craftsmanship (e.g. traditional knowledge and skills of pottery-making,felt-making, textile-making, wood-work, metal-work, jewelry-making, musical instrumentmaking, …).Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural HeritageSafeguarding of ICH, in a brief description, means to provide the necessary groundingsto promote it and make it possible to transmit from one generation to another. Accordingly,such measures as “identifying”, “documentation”, “research” and “promotion” can be regardedas safeguarding measures for ICH. In this connection, activities such as "awareness raising"and “capacity building” in relation to the meaning, status, and functions of the IntangibleCultural Heritage are the key actions.The Subject of CompetitionThe subject of the first international photography competition of Tehran ICH Centre is“Intangible Cultural Heritage in the Context”. The importance of ICH is shown by itsoccurrence and expression in the Context. By “context” we mean the situation andsurroundings in which, a local community exists, works, interacts with nature and, to sumup, “lives”. Each of various manifestations of Intangible Cultural Heritage can be genuinely
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Page 4 of 5expressed just in such context. Intangible Cultural Heritage can be treated as vivid when it isrecognized cultural heritage by its bearers and expressed in the context, otherwise it doesn’tneed to be safeguarded, because such heritage begins the process of museumification whichresults in to death of the very heritage. If we present an intangible cultural heritage for tourists,in an exhibition or in a festival, we separate that heritage from its own context. Accordingly,places such as villages, farms, traditional workshops, traditional places for trading,performing art or a special social custom are included as instances of context.Objectives of the Competition- To promote public awareness about Intangible Cultural Heritage,- To attract various groups and communities to the expressions of the intangiblecultural heritage and its importance in their everyday lives,- To attract the participation of enthusiasts for photography to help in identificationand highlighting the expressions of the intangible cultural heritage,- To create an appropriate groundings for documentations of the expressions of theintangible cultural heritage,- To identify and emphasize on the great role and the importance of photography insafeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage,Conditions and Regulations1- Subject of sent works must be the ICH of 24 countries over the region, disregardingof photographers’ nationality,2- It is free for all people who are interested in photography, with no age limitation,3- The secretariat does not consider any limitation regarding photography tools,4- Size of sent works should be in the range of 500 kb up to 2 Mb in JPEG format,
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Page 5 of 55- Sent works must be in accordance with the regulations of the Islamic Republic ofIran and social norms,6- Any retouch on sent works that ruins the genuineness of them results in dismissalfrom the competition7- Judgment will be done on every single photo,8- Jury, in addition to techniques of photography, will judge the photo subjects,9- Existence of any signs, signatures, watermarks, dates, logos, … results in dismissal ofworks from competition,10- Participants should have the raw files of sent works,11- Secretariat recognize the sender of works as the owner,12- Secretariat, considering the intellectual properties of owners(spiritual ownership), ispermitted to use the sent works according to its discretion,13- Women and young people are especially encouraged to participate,14- Sending of works and participation in competition means acceptance of theregulation of the competition.Calendar• Applicants are obliged to send files of their works to E-Mail address,up to 18 February 2017• Announcement of primary admitted works is between 19 and 24 February 2017• Final winners and grant of prizes will be announced until the end of February 2017Valuable prizes will be granted to winners of competition

What is Intangible Cultural Heritage?

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The Carnival of Barranquilla, ColombiaPhoto © Maria F. PaezWhat is Intangible Cultural Heritage?Intangible Cultural Heritage
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We share cultural expressions that have been passed from onegeneration to another, have evolved in response to theirenvironments and contribute to giving us a sense of identityand continuity…What is IntangiblePhoto © Ugurhan/iStockphoto
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UNESCO and cultural heritageThere are things that we regard as important to preserve for futuregenerations. They may be significant due to their present or possibleeconomic value, but also because they create a certain emotion withinus, or because they make us feel as though we belong to something –a country, a tradition, a way of life. They might be objects that can be heldand buildings that can be explored, or songs that can be sung and storiesthat can be told. Whatever shape they take, these things form part of aheritage, and this heritage requires active effort on our part in order tosafeguard it.The term ‘cultural heritage’ has changed content considerably in recentdecades, partially owing to the instruments developed by UNESCO.Cultural heritage does not end at monuments and collections of objects.It also includes traditions or living expressions inherited from ourancestors and passed on to our descendants, such as oral traditions,performing arts, social practices, rituals, festive events, knowledge andpractices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skillsto produce traditional crafts.UNESCO, which is the only specialized agency within the United Nationssystem with a specific mandate in culture, assists its Member States in theelaboration and implementation of measures for an effectivesafeguarding of their cultural heritage. Among those measures, theadoption of the Convention for the Safeguarding of the IntangibleCultural Heritage was a major step for developing new policies in the fieldof cultural heritage.Cultural Heritage?Photo © Samvel AmirkhanyanPhoto © Conselho Das Aldeias WaiapiPhoto © M. RevelardPhoto © Vasil S. TOLEPhoto © Ugurhan/iStockphotoLLLL Albanian Folk iso-polyphonyLLL The Carnival ofBinche, BelgiumLL The Duduk and itsMusic, ArmeniaL Oral and graphicexpressions of the Wajapi,BrazilJ Mosaic floor in Meknes,Morocco
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4 . INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGEIntangible Cultural HeritageWhile fragile, intangible cultural heritage is animportant factor in maintaining cultural diversityin the face of growing globalization. An under -standing of the intangible cultural heritage ofdifferent communities helps with interculturaldialogue, and encourages mutual respect forother ways of life.The importance of intangible cultural heritage isnot the cultural manifestation itself but ratherthe wealth of knowledge and skills that istransmitted through it from one generation tothe next. The social and economic value of thistransmission of knowledge is relevant forminority groups and for mainstream socialgroups within a State, and is as important fordeveloping States as for developed ones.Intangible cultural heritage is:■ Traditional, contemporary and living at thesame time: intangible cultural heritage doesnot only represent inherited traditions fromthe past but also contemporary rural andurban practices in which diverse culturalgroups take part;■ Inclusive: we may share expressions ofintangible cultural heritage that are similar tothose practised by others. Whether they arefrom the neighbouring village, from a city onthe opposite side of the world, or have beenadapted by peoples who have migrated andsettled in a different region, they all areintangible cultural heritage: they have beenpassed from one generation to another, haveLL The Carnival ofBarranquilla, ColombiaL The Oral Heritage of Gelede,Benin, Nigeria and TogoPhoto © Minisrtyof Culture of the Republic of ColumbiaPhoto © UNESCO / Yves Parfait KoffiIntangible cultural heritage dependson those whose knowledge oftraditions, skills and customs arepassed on to the rest of thecommunity, from generation togeneration, or to other communities…
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GIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE . 5knowledge of traditions, skills and customs arepassed on to the rest of the community, fromgeneration to generation, or to othercommunities;■ Community-based: intangible culturalheritage can only be heritage when it isrecognized as such by the communities,groups or individuals that create, maintainand transmit it – without their recognition,nobody else can decide for them that a givenexpression or practice is their heritage.evolved in response to their environmentsand they contribute to giving us a sense ofidentity and continuity, providing a link fromour past, through the present, and into ourfuture. Intangible cultural heritage does notgive rise to questions of whether or notcertain practices are specific to a culture. Itcontributes to social cohesion, encouraging asense of identity and responsibility whichhelps individuals to feel part of one ordifferent communities and to feel part ofsociety at large.■ Representative: intangible cultural heritage isnot merely valued as a cultural good, on acomparative basis, for its exclusivity or itsexceptional value. It thrives on its basis incommunities and depends on those whoseK The Bistritsa Babi –Archaic Polyphony, Dancesand Rituals from theShoplouk Region, BulgariaPhoto © CNRPAHPhoto © Mila SantovaL Kun Qu Opera, ChinaK The Ahellil of Gouara,AlgeriaPhoto © Chinese Academy of Arts
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In Cambodiaa Khmer shadow theatre featuringleather work puppets, the Sbek Thom, takes placethree or four times a year on specific occasionsand has evolved from being a ritualistic activity inthe fifteenth century to becoming an artistic formin the present day.The Baltic Song and Dance Celebrations in Latvia,Estonia and Lithuaniamaintain and develop theregion’s tradition of performing folk art. Large-scalefestivals lasting several days take place every fifthyear in Estonia and Latvia and every fourth year inLithuania providing a showcase for up to 40,000,mainly amateur, singers and dancers.The Zafimaniry communities of Madagascarhave developed and continue to practise theirknowledge and skills revolving around wood,from forestry to building to the elaborateornamental sculpting of practically all woodensurfaces whether decorative features orfunctional objects such as tools.In most regions of Mexico, communitiescommemorate the temporary return to Earth ofdeceased relatives and loved ones on el Día delos Muertos (Day of the Dead). These festivities,which fuse pre-Hispanic religious rites withCatholic feasts, take place at the end of Octoberto the beginning of November each year alsomarking the annual cycle of the cultivation ofmaize, the country’s biggest food crop.Barkcloth making in Uganda involves some ofhumankind’s oldest knowledge, a prehistorictechnique that predates the invention ofweaving. Barkcloth is mainly worn atcoronation and healing ceremonies, funeralsand cultural gatherings, but is also used forcurtains, mosquito screens, bedding andstorage. With the introduction of cotton cloth byArab caravan traders in the nineteenth century,production slowed and barkcloth’s cultural andspiritual functions diminished, until its revival inrecent decades.Safeguarding a living heritageJust like culture in general, intangible heritage isconstantly changing and evolving, and beingenriched by each new generation. Manyexpressions and manifestations of intangiblecultural heritage are under threat, endangeredby globalization and cultural homogenisation,and also by a lack of support, appreciation andunderstanding. If intangible cultural heritage isnot nurtured, it risks becoming lost forever, orfrozen as a practice belonging to the past.Preserving this heritage and passing it on tofuture generations strengthens it, and keeps italive while allowing for it to change and adapt.In order to safeguard intangible culturalheritage, we need different measures from theones used for conserving monuments, sites andnatural spaces. For intangible to be kept alive, itmust remain relevant to a culture and beregularly practised and learned withincommunities and between generations.L The Al-Sirah Al-HilaliyyahEpic, EgyptI The Samba de Roda ofRecôncavo of Bahia, Brazil6 . INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGEPhoto © CULTNATPhoto © National Museum of CambodiaPhoto © UNESCO/Latvian Folk CentrePhoto © Ministère de la Culture de MadagascarPhoto © Lorenzo ArmendarizPhoto © J.K WalusimbiPhoto © Luiz Santoz/ UNESCO
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7For intangible to be kept alive, it must remain relevant to aculture and be regularly practised and learned withincommunities and between generations.Photo © Luiz Santoz/ UNESCO
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8 . INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGECommunities and groups who practise thesetraditions and customs everywhere in theworld have their own systems for transmittingtheir knowledge and skills, usually dependant onword of mouth rather than written texts.Safeguarding activities must therefore alwaysinvolve the communities, groups and, whereappropriate, individuals that bear such heritage.There is a risk that certain elements of intangiblecultural heritage could die out or disappearwithout help, but how can we safeguard andmanage a heritage that is constantly changingand part of ‘living culture’ without freezing ortrivializing it? Safeguarding them is about thetransferring of knowledge, skills and meaning.In other words, safeguarding focuses onthe processes involved in transmitting, orcommunicating intangible cultural heritagefrom generation to generation, rather than onthe production of its concrete manifestations,such as a dance performance, a song, a musicinstrument or a craft.Safeguarding means making sure that intangiblecultural heritage remains an active part of life fortoday’s generations that they can hand on totomorrow’s. Safeguarding measures aim atensuring its viability, its continuous recreationand its transmission. Initiatives for safeguardingintangible cultural heritage might includeidentifying and documenting such heritage,research, preservation, promotion, enhancementor transmission of it – particularly through formaland non-formal education – as well asrevitalizing various aspects of it.Safeguarding intangible cultural heritage is alsoan important source of economic development,though not necessarily through income-generating activities like tourism, which maydamage living heritage. Instead, the focus shouldbe on enhancing the functions of intangiblecultural heritage within society and promotingits mainstreaming in economic policy planning.Intangible cultural heritage includesoral traditions, performing arts,social practices, rituals, festiveevents, knowledge and practicesconcerning nature and the universeor the knowledge and skills toproduce traditional crafts.
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A Convention for international recognitionAs a driving force of cultural diversity, intangiblecultural heritage has received internationalrecognition and its safeguarding has becomeone of the priorities of international cooperation.The Convention adopted by the GeneralConference of UNESCO in 2003 is the firstinternational treaty to provide a legal,administrative and financial framework tosafeguard this heritage. A Convention is anagreement under international law entered into byStates and that establishes rights and obligationsbetween each party and every other party.The 2003 Convention aims at safeguardingintangible cultural heritage that is in step withinternational agreements on human rights andthat meets requirements of mutual respect amongcommunities and of sustainable development.At a national level, the Convention calls for thesafeguarding of the intangible heritage present ona State’s territory. Among other things, it also askseach State to identify and define such heritagewith the participation of communities, groups andrelevant non-governmental organizations.All States that have ratified the Convention meetin a General Assembly that elects the 24members of an Intergovernmental Committeein charge of promoting the Convention’s aimsand monitoring its implementation. Amongother things, the Committee makes decisionsabout which intangible heritage should beinscribed on the lists of the Convention, aboutproviding international financial assistance ordisseminating good safeguarding practices.When an element is found on the territory ofmore than one State Party, the State Partiesconcerned are encouraged to jointly submitmultinational nominations.If selected by the IntergovernmentalCommittee, the intangible cultural heritageelement will be inscribed on the List of theIntangible Cultural heritage in Need of Urgentsafeguarding, or on the Representative List ofthe Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.The Urgent Safeguarding List is the mostimportant list since it aims at taking appropriatesafeguarding measures for those intangiblecultural heritage expressions or manifestationswhose viability – that is whose continuousrecreation and transmission – is threatened.Inscribing an element on the Representative Listis done in order to ensure its visibility andawareness of its significance and to encouragedialogue, thus reflecting cultural diversityworldwide and testifying to human creativity.The Committee also publishes and updates aregister of programmes, projects and activities thatit has selected as best reflecting the objectives andprinciples of the Convention. These programmes,projects or activities may serve as safeguardingexamples and be disseminated as good practices.Although only governments from States Partiesto the Convention can nominate intangiblecultural heritage elements for the Committee toconsider, the proposal must be made with thefull participation and consent of the communityor group concerned.JJ The Space of GongCulture, Viet NamJ The Oral Heritage ofGelede, Benin, Nigeria andTogoI The Arts of the Meddah,Public Storytellers, TurkeyJ Slovácko Verbŭnk, Recruit Dances, Czech RepublicPhoto © Institute of Culture and Information of VietnamPhoto © National Insitute of Folk Culture (N⁄LK)Photo © UNESCO / Yves Parfait KoffiPhoto ©National Commission of Turkey for UNESCO
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Where do we start?Just as monuments and works of art areidentified and collected, intangible culturalheritage can also be gathered and recorded. Infact, for a State, the first step in safeguarding it isto identify those expressions and manifestationsthat can be considered intangible culturalheritage and making a record, or inventory, ofthem. These inventories may then serve as basisfor developing safeguarding measures for themanifestations and expressions of the intangiblecultural heritage included, and described, in theinventory. The communities themselves musttake part in identifying and defining theirintangible cultural heritage: they are the oneswho decide which practices are part of theircultural heritage.Inventories of the intangible cultural heritage should include all kinds ofexpressions, no matter how common or rare they are, how many orhow few people in the community take part in them, or how much ofan effect or influence they have in that community. It might also beadvisable to think about what intangible cultural heritage is most underthreat or under the greatest pressure. Indeed, how widespread themanifestations and expressions are, how many participate in them andhow much of an impact they have will be noted in inventories in orderto show how weak or strong each of them is. Since intangible culturalheritage is constantly subject to changes, inventories should beregularly updated.The Convention supports the efforts of its States Parties (countries thathave ratified the Convention) in safeguarding intangible cultural heritage.States Parties can submit requests for international assistance to theIntergovernmental Committee for the safeguarding of the heritageinscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, for the preparation ofinventories and for the support for programmes, projects and activities.L The Cultural Space of theBrotherhood of the HolySpirit of the Congos of VillaMella, Dominican RepublicI The Patum of Berga,SpainI The Polyphonic Singingof the Aka Pygmies ofCentral Africa10 . INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGEPhoto ©Manel Escobet i Giru / UNESCOPhoto © Museo del Hombre DominicanoPhoto © Commission nationale Centrafricaine et Ministere de la jeunesse et des sports, arts et culture
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Communities themselves must take part in identifying anddefining intangible cultural heritage: they are the onesdeciding which practices are part of their cultural heritage.Photo © Commission nationale Centrafricaine et Ministere de la jeunesse et des sports, arts et culture
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IntangibleCulturalHeritageKThe Carnival of Barranquilla, ColombiaPhoto © Maria F. PaezIntangibleCulturalHeritageIntangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation togeneration, is constantly recreated by communities and groups,and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thuspromoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity.With the support of the Governmentof Norway


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ICH-RELATED RESEARCH: A WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHYOctober 2014Note: This working bibliography focuses on issues relating broadly to theimplementation of the UNESCO Intangible Heritage Convention and related legalinstruments, and the safeguarding of intangible heritage at international and national orlocal levels. It does not include studies of traditional cultural expressions or practicesthat are not related with the implementation of the UNESCO convention.The bibliography was initiated by Harriet Deacon and Chiara Bortolotto, when they wereasked to write a paper about global trends in ICH research for the Researchers Forummeeting in Paris in 2012. One of the issues identified in their paper1besides thediversity of topics, and rapid increase in publications, was the lack of a ‘conversation’between the literature on ICH in different languages and regions. The bibliography thusaims to be as multilingual as possible.Many colleagues contributed references to the list, which was supplemented by GoogleScholar research in various languages. Chiara and Harriet developed broad criteria forthe inclusion of papers. The bibliography was then further developed in French andSpanish by Séverine Cachat and her team from the French center for ICH(CFPCI-Maison des Cultures du Monde), which will continue work on Frenchpublications and make the bibliography available on their website. Cristina Amescuafrom the Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias (Regional Center forMultidisciplinary Research) - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)provided additional Spanish references.Please feel free to use the bibliography for your teaching or research. There will beomissions and errors. If you have corrections or additions to make that fall into theaforementioned scope of this bibliography, please email Séverine Cachat(severine.cachat (at) Deacon, H.J. and C. Bortolotto, 2012. ‘Charting a way forward: existing research and future directions for ICHresearch related to the Intangible Heritage Convention’,
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Aceti, M., 2010. Des imaginaires en controverse dans la pratique de la capoeira: loisir,«métier» et patrimoine culturel immatériel. Staps, (1), pp.109–124.Adell Nicolas, Pourcher Yves (dirs), Transmettre, quel(s) patrimoine(s) ?: autour du patrimoineculturel immatériel, Paris, Michel Houdiard éditeur,2011., N., 2004. The relevance of intangible heritage to development. Anthropology News,45(3), p.24.Agullo, M., 2010. La voz y la palabra de los tesoros vivos: fuentes orales y recuperación delpatrimonio histórico-educativo inmaterial. Educatio Siglo XXI, 28(2), pp.157–178.Ahmad, Y., 2006. The scope and definitions of heritage: from tangible to intangible.International journal of heritage studies, 12(03), pp.292–300.Ahmed Baghli, S., 2006. La préservation du patrimoine: l’exemple du palais du dey d’ElDjazaïr. Comptes-rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres,150(1), pp.555–562.Ai-Jun, N., 2008. Protection of traditional Wushu inheitor as seen from intangible culturalheritage. Journal of Wuhan Institute of Physical Education, 10.Aikawa-Faure, N., 2003. Visión Histórica de la Preparación de la Convención Internacional dela UNESCO para la Salvaguardia del Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial. MuseumInternacional. Patrimonio Inmaterial. Paris, UNESCO, (221-222), pp.140–155.Aikawa-Faure, N., 2004a. An historical overview of the preparation of the UNESCOInternational Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage.Museum international, 56(1-2), pp.137–149.Aikawa-Faure, N., 2004b. Panorama historique de la préparation de la Conventioninternationale pour la sauvegarde du patrimoine culturel immatériel de l´ UNESCO.Museum international, (221), pp.137–149.Aikawa-Faure, N., 2004c. Patrimonio cultural intangible: nuevos planteamientos respecto a susalvaguardia. Disponible en Internet: http://www. crim. unam. mx/informe%20mund2/PATRIMONIO. htp.
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Aikawa-Faure, N., 2008. Safeguarding of the African Intangible Cultural Heritage. Preservingthe cultural heritage of Africa: crisis or renaissance?, p.96.Aikawa-Faure, N., 2009. From the proclamation of masterpieces to the Convention for theSafeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Intangible heritage, pp.13–44.Ai-min, Q., 2007. On the Mechanism for the Intangible Culture Heritage Protection underIntellectual Property Protection Mode. Journal of Chongqing University (Social ScienceEdition), 3.Akagawa, N. & Sirisrisak, T., 2005. Intangible Heritage in urban planning process, Case Study:Chao Phraya Riverscape, Thailand. In 8th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THEASIAN PLANNING SCHOOLS ASSOCIATION. pp. 11–14.Albert, M.T. & Hüfner, K., Concepts of heritage–A comparison of the UNESCO conventionsconcerning tangible (1972) and intangible (2003) heritage.Albert, M.T., The MUMA-Project–An Integrated Approach to Heritage Management. TrainingStrategies for World Heritage Management, p.26.Albro, R., 2005. Managing Culture at Diversity’s Expense? Thoughts on UNESCO’s NewestCultural Policy Instrument. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, 35(3),pp.247–253.Alge, B. (2007). The Pauliteiros de Miranda: from local symbol to intangible cultural heritage?Etnografica, 11(2), 353–369.Alivizatou, M., 2004. Museums and Intangible Heritage: The Case Study of the Athens andLondon Theatre Museums. Unpublished MA Dissertation, University College London.Alivizatou, M., 2007a. Intangible Cultural Heritage: A New Universal Museological Discourse?In Lecture at the ICOM General Conference in Vienna.Alivizatou, M., 2007b. The UNESCO Programme for the Proclamation of Masterpieces of theOral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity: A Critical Examination. Journal of MuseumEthnography, (19), pp.34–42.
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Alivizatou, M., 2008. Contextualising Intangible Cultural Heritage in Heritage Studies andMuseology. International Journal of Intangible Heritage, 3, pp.44–54.Alivizatou, M., 2009. Museums and Intangible Heritage: The Dynamics of an “Unconventional”Relationship. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology, 17.Alivizatou, M., 2011. Debating heritage authenticity: kastom and development at the VanuatuCultural Centre.Alivizatou, Marilena, 2012. Intangible Heritage and the Museum, Left Coast Press, Inc.Available at: [Accessed May 9, 2012].Alsalmo, A., 2011. La sauvegarde du patrimoine culturel immatériel en droit international.Álvarez, M. & Sammartino, G., 2009. Empanadas, tamales y carpaccio de llama: Patrimonioalimentario y turismo en la Quebrada de Humahuaca-Argentina. Estudios yperspectivas en turismo, 18(2), pp.161–175.Amescua, C. (2010). Cultura y migración. El patrimonio cultural inmaterial en las zonas decontacto: ¿una lucha por la autenticidad o una opción para la convivencia? (No. 6).México.Amescua, C. (2011). Análisis Regional de las Proclamaciones de Obras Maestras delPatrimonio Oral e Inmaterial de la Humanidad. In L. Arizpe (Ed.), Compartir elPatrimonio Cultural Inmaterial: Narrativas y Representaciones (pp. 103–127). México:CRIM-UNAM, CONACULTA-DGCP.Amescua, C. (2013). Anthropology of Intangible Cultural Heritage and Migration: An UnchartedField. In Anthropological Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage (pp. 91–106).Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, Springer Briefs in Environment, Security,Development and Peace (ESDP) Vol. 46.Amselle, J.L., 2004. Intangible heritage and contemporary African Art. Museum international,56(1‐2), pp.84–90.Anaya, H. (2013). El patrimonio intangible: hábitos, costumbres y expresiones populares (p.320). México: Promociones y Proyectos Culturales XXIs.Andrade, Constança. 2008. Dinâmicas do património imaterial: a candidaturagalego-portuguesa à UNESCO. Dissertação de Mestrado, ISCTE.
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Andreini, A., II Museo Che Accoglie, Regione Toscana.Andrews, T.D. & Buggey, S., 2008. Authenticity in Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes. APTBulletin, 39(2/3), pp.63–71.Andrews, C., Viejo-Rose, D., Baillie, B., & Morris, B. (2006). Conference Report:Tangible-intangible cultural heritage: A sustainable dichotomy? International Journal ofIntangible Heritage, 8(3), 174–176. doi:10.1179/175355206x265814Andrieu, S., 2007. La mise en spectacle de l’identité nationale. Une analyse des politiquesculturelles au Burkina Faso. Journal des anthropologues. Association française desanthropologues, (Hors-série), pp.89–103.ANDRIS Silke. 2010 « Immaterielles Kulturerbe, Spurenschue einer Konvention », 5, juin : 8-12.ANDRIS Silke. 2010. “Im Bilde sein oder nicht im Bilde sein? Gedanken zur Dokumentationvon immateriellen Kulturerbe”, in NIKE (2010/4) Immaterielles Kulturebre und kulturelleVielfalt, 28-30.ANDRIS, Silke, Tanja CORAY, Melissa DETTLING, Giulia PESAPANE, Céline STEINER.“Darstellende Künste als Lebendige Traditionen? Möglichkeiten und Grenzen derUNESCO Konvention zur Bewahrung des immateriellen Kulturerbes”, in Andris, Silke;Gimmi, Karin; Heimberg, Liliana, Ringli, Dieter und Yvone Schmidt (Hg.), Ästhetikdes Freilichttheaters, ZHdK, Zürich, S. 352–302.Anfruns, J., 2009. The role of International Council of Museums for the safeguarding ofintangible heritage and museums development of intangible assets. In WorldConference on Intellectual Capital for Communities in the Knowledge Economy (IC5),Paris, France. Retrieved from http://info. 20Intangible% 20heritage% 20Final. pdf.Antons, C., 2009. Traditional knowledge, traditional cultural expressions, and intellectualproperty law in the Asia-Pacific region, Kluwer Law Intl.Antoon de Baets, 2004. A Declaration of the Responsibilities of Present Generations towardPast Generations. History and Theory, 43(4), pp.130–164.
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Anxin, W., 2007. Jurisprudential Analysis of Guardians Interests in Intangible Cultural HeritageProtection. Journal of Jining University, 5.ARANTES, A. A. Patrimônio imaterial e referências culturais. Tempo Brasileiro, v. 1, n. 147, p.129-139, 2001.Arantes, A. (2009). Heritage as Culture: Limits, Uses and Implications of Intangible CulturalHeritage Inventories. In T. Kono (Ed.), Intangible Cultural Heritage and IntellectualProperty: Communities, Cultural Diversity and Sustainable Development (pp. 81–75).Antwerp–Oxford–Portland: Intersentia.Arantes, A. (2013). Cultural Mediation in the Safeguarding of ICH. In AnthropologicalPerspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage (pp. 34–51). Berlin, Heidelberg: SpringerVerlag, Springer Briefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace (ESDP) Vol.46.Arévalo, J.M., 2004. La tradición, el patrimonio y la identidad. Revista de estudios extremeños,3, pp.925–955.Ariño, A. (n.d.). La patrimonialziación de la cultura y sus paradojas posmodernas. Retrievedfrom, L. & Arizpe, L., 2009. El patrimonio cultural inmaterial de México: ritos y festividades,Miguel Angel Porrua.Arizpe, L., 2004. El patrimonio cultural intangible en un mundo interactivo. In conferenciapresentada en el marco de coloquio del Día Internacional de los Museos.Arizpe, L. (2004). Intangible Cultural Heritage, Diversity and Coherence. MuseumInternational, 56(1-2), 130–136. doi:10.1111/j.1350-0775.2004.00467.xArizpe, L., 2006. Los debates internacionales en torno al Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial.Cuicuilco, (038), pp.13–27.Arizpe, Lourdes, 2011. Compartir el patrimonio cultural immaterial, narrativas yrepresentaciones, Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, Mexico.
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Arizpe, L., Amescua, C., Pérez, E., Pérez, E., & Hernández, A. (2011). El Patrimonio CulturalCívico: la Memoria Política como Capital Social. México: M.A. Porrúa, Cámara deDiputados.Arizpe, L., & Amescua, C. (2012). Research Planning Meeting on Intangible Cultural Heritage(p. 35). México. Retrieved from, L. (2013). Singularity and Micro-regional Strategies in Intangible Cultural Heritage. InAnthropological Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage (pp. 15–29). Berlin,Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, Springer Briefs in Environment, Security, Developmentand Peace (ESDP) Vol. 46.Arizpe, L., & Amescua, C. (2013). Anthropological Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage(p. 125). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, Springer Briefs in Environment, Security,Development and Peace (ESDP) Vol. 46.Arruda, G., 2006. O patrimônio imaterial: a cidadania eo patrimônio dos “sem eira nem beira.”DIÁLOGOS. DHI/PPH/UEM, 10(3), pp.117–144.Arslan, A. et al., 2008. Revival Of The Non-Existing Intangible Cultural Heritage In The AncientCities And Its Reflections On Tourism In Turkey. In WSEAS International Conference.Proceedings. Mathematics and Computers in Science and Engineering. WSEAS.Askew, M., 2010. The magic list of global status. Heritage and globalisation, p.19.Baghli, S.A., 2004. The convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage andnew perspectives for the museum. ICOM News: Museums and Intangible Heritage,57(4), pp.15–17.Baillie, B. & Chippindale, C., 2006. Tangible-intangible cultural heritage: A sustainabledichotomy? The 7th Annual Cambridge Heritage Seminar, 13 May 2006. McDonaldInstitute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge, UK. Conservation andManagement of Archaeological Sites, 8(3), pp.174–176.Baillie, B., 2006. Conservation of the sacred at Angkor Wat: further reflections on livingheritage. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 8(3), pp.123–131.Bainton, N.A. et al., 2011. Stepping Stones Across the Lihir Islands: Developing CulturalHeritage Management in the Context of a Gold-Mining Operation. International Journalof Cultural Property, 18(01), pp.81–110.
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Bakker, K. & Müller, Liana, 2010. Intangible heritage and community identity in post-apartheidSouth Africa. Museum International, LXII(62)(1-2), pp.245–246.Bakker, K.A. & Müller, L., 2010. Patrimoine immatériel et identité communautaire dansl’Afrique du Sud post‐apartheid. Museum International (Edition Francaise), 62(1‐2),pp.51–59.Ballard, L.-M. (2008). Curating intangible cultural heritage. Anthropological Journal ofEuropean Cultures, 17(1), 74–95.Barela, L. (2008). Patrimonio intangible, sociedad e identidades. In Patrimonio Inmaterial yPueblos Indígenas de América (pp. 21–34). Querétaro: • INSTITUTO DEESTUDIOS CONSTITUCIONALES DEL ESTADO DE QUERÉTARO, INAH.Beazley O. and H.J. Deacon, ‘The Safeguarding of Intangible Heritage values under the WorldHeritage Convention: Auschwitz, Hiroshima and Robben Island’, in J.E. Blake (ed.)Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage - Challenges and Approaches (Builth Wells:Institute of Art and Law, 2007), pp.93-107.Beazley O. and H.J. Deacon, ‘The Safeguarding of Intangible Heritage values under the WorldHeritage Convention: Auschwitz, Hiroshima and Robben Island’, in J.E. Blake (ed.)Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage - Challenges and Approaches (Builth Wells:Institute of Art and Law, 2007), pp.93-107.Bedjaoui, M., 2004a. La convention portant sauvegarde du patrimoine culturel immatériel: uncadre juridique et des principes universellement reconnus. Museum international,56(221-222), pp.150–155.Bedjaoui, M., 2004b. The Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage:the legal framework and universally recognized principles. Museum international,56(1‐2), pp.150–155.Bellagamba, A., 2006. Before It Is Too Late: Constructing an Archive of Oral Sources and aNational Museum in Independent Gambia. Africa Today, 52(4), pp.29–52.Bendix, R., 2009. Heritage between economy and politics. Intangible heritage: Routledge,London, New York, pp.253–269.
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Bendrups, D., Barney, K. & Grant, C. (2013). An introduction to sustainability andethnomusicology in the Australiasian context. Musicology Australia 35(2), 153-158.Special issue: Music, culture and sustainability. doi: 10.1080/08145857.2013.844470Benhamou, F. & Cornu, M., 2011. Le patrimoine culturel au risque de l’immatériel: Enjeuxjuridiques, culturels, économiques, Editions L’Harmattan.Benhamou, F. & Thesmar, D., 2011. Valoriser le patrimoine culturel de la France. Conseild’Analyse Économique, Paris.Bergström, L., 2003. How do we preserve knowledge and skills when their practitioners nolonger exist? Patrimoine de l’industrie= Industrial patrimony, (9), pp.23–27.Bertoli, C., 2011. Le Regioni e il patrimonio culturale nel diritto internazionale, europeo enazionale. Casi di studio e comparazione tra Italia, Francia e Spagna.Bertrand, W., 2010. Haïti: patrimoine culturel menacé et nouvelles opportunités. MuseumInternational (Edition Francaise), 62(4), pp.35–40.Bialogorski, M. & Fischman, F., 2002. Una aproximación crítica a la dicotomíatangible/intangible en el abordaje del patrimonio cultural desde las nuevas perspectivasdel folklore. Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales.Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, (18), pp.233–240.Bianchi, R., 2005. Patrimonio inmaterial y urbanismo cosmopolita en el mediterráneo: unavisión crítica desde el proyecto’Mediterranean Voices’. G. CARRERA y G. DIETZ(coords.) Patrimonio inmaterial y gestión de la diversidad. Sevilla, Consejería deCultura, pp.85–97.Bille, Mikkel (2012) “Assembling Heritage: Investigating the UNESCO Proclamation of BedouinIntangible Heritage in Jordan.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 18(2):107-123.Bing’an, W., 2007. Some Theoretical and Practical Problems on the Identification of IntangibleCulture Heritage. Journal of Henan Institute of Education (Philosophy and SocialSciences), 1.Blackledge, A. et al., 2008. Contesting “language”as “heritage”: Negotiation of identities in latemodernity. Applied Linguistics, 29(4), pp.533–554.
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Blake, J., 2000. On defining the cultural heritage. International and Comparative LawQuarterly, 49(1), pp.61–85.Blake, J., 2001. Developing a new standard-setting instrument for the safeguarding ofintangible cultural heritage: Elements for consideration, UNESCO Paris.Blake, J., 2002. Elaboration d’un nouvel instrument normatif pour la sauvegarde du patrimoineculturel immatériel-Eléments de réflexion, París.Blake, J., 2006. Commentary on the UNESCO 2003 Convention on the Safeguarding of theIntangible Cultural Heritage. Leicester, UK: Institute of Art and Law (ISBN1-903987-09-1).Blake, J., 2008a. Le cadre juridique international de la sauvegarde et de la promotion deslangues. Museum International (Edition Francaise), 60(3), pp.14–27.Blake, J., 2008b. “Standard-Setting Instruments Promoting Multilingualism”: Launch of theUnited Nations International Year of Mother Languages—UNESCO, Paris, February 21,2008. International Journal of Cultural Property, 15(04), pp.433–436.Blake, J., 2009. UNESCO’s 2003 Convention on Intangible Cultural Heritage. Intangibleheritage, p.45.Blake, J., 2011. Taking a Human Rights Approach to Cultural Heritage Protection. Heritage &Society formerly Heritage Management, 4(2), pp.199–238.Blake, Janet (2011) “Taking a Human Rights Approach to Cultural Heritage Protection.”Heritage & Society 4(2): 199-238.Blake, Janet, 2000. On Defining the Cultural Heritage. The International and Comparative LawQuarterly, 49(1), pp.61–85.Blake, Janet, 2007. Safeguarding intangible cultural heritage: challenges and approaches; acollection of essays, Leicester, UK: Institute of Art and Law.Bondaz, Julien, Graezer Bideau, Florence, Isnart, Cyril, Leblon, Anais (Eds.)Les vocabulaires locaux du “patrimoine”. Traductions, négociations et
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